National Laws 7% open (avg.)

This data category requires all national laws and statutes to be available online, although it is not a requirement that information on legislative behaviour e.g. voting records is available.


Rank Place Breakdown Info Year Score Admin
73 Afghanistan
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2016 33%
41 Albania
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2016 50%
73 Antigua and Barbuda
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2016 33%
28 Argentina
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  •  
2016 67%
28 Argentina

The submission should be accepted without changes. Lopez made a comment on the forum with regards to data being available in CSV format and proposed that B7 should be changed to YES. I did not make these changes as the data found on the URL Lopez provided on the forum post does not provide the data that we are looking for (texts of national laws) but rather an aggregate list of various laws, directives and resolutions with no corresponding text. So, the government does provide lists of national laws, directives, and resolutions in CSV format and this information is available as open data, but I do not think that it should be used for the purpose of this submission. Rather, this submission should be based on data provided by SAIJ (at the URL noted in B2.2) as this is where the actual texts of the laws are found. Because of this, I did not make changes to B2.2, B7 and B8.


8 Australia
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  •  
2016 89%
8 Australia

I changed the URL in B2 to one that is more up do date. All other sections are unchanged This updated review includes a comment that data is available in html (following tobybellwood's feedback on the forum).


1 Austria
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  •  
2016 100%
28 Bangladesh
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  •  
2016 67%
82 Barbados
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2016 0%
82 Barbados

Although the Barbados Parliament has a website hosting a list of bills/draft legislation before Parliament I was unable to source a similar collection of national laws. However there are a few financial agencies that list a number of business related laws.

Fair Trade Commission http://www.ftc.gov.bb/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=18&Itemid=63

Invest Barbados https://www.investbarbados.org/legislation.php


41 Belgium
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2016 50%
73 Bhutan
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2016 33%
28 Bolivia
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2016 67%
28 Bolivia

I have made no changes to the submission, with the exception of the comments on the side which provide some more details on the findings. Full texts of the national laws with amendments were available on both the SILEP site and the Gaceta Oficial. The SILEP site was easier to navigate and displayed amendments more clearly. But Gaceta was the one that was regularly updated, while SILEP was out of date. The SILEP site makes it clear that the Gaceta should the authority on national laws publications. It states: "IMPORTANT: LAWS SHOWN ON THIS WEBSITE ARE THE RESULT OF REGISTRATION AND UPDATING AND EXPRESS REPEALS Repeals ADOPTED BY THE LEGISLATIVE BODY FROM 1825. HERE DOCUMENTS SUBMITTED IN ANY WAY THEY CAN NOT BE USED AS LEGAL REFERENCE, AS SUCH ALLOCATION APPLICABLE TO THE GAZETTE STATE OFFICER." It is possible that SILEP provides updated information only to registered users. It advises visitors to register in order to stay more up to date with the laws.


41 Bosnia and Herzegovina
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2016 50%
82 Botswana
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2016 0%
82 Botswana

Original submission by Tricia Govindasamy


1 Brazil
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2016 100%
1 Brazil

More information about the Lexml project can be obtained through http://projeto.lexml.gov.br/documentacao/resumo-em-ingles


80 Bulgaria
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2016 17%
80 Bulgaria

Re-submitted by Reviewer after rejecting original submission. Original Submission included data for Legislation rather than National Laws.

Although the database for legislation contained some bills (http://parliament.bg/bg/bills), it comprises National Assembly #39 through #43 -- its earliest date of catalog is 2009. Not considered a National Law database.


73 Cambodia
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2016 33%
73 Cambodia

The laws are listed on the National Assembly website, available here: http://national-assembly.org.kh. The content and amendments are indicated, and available in full-text PDF. The website, however, is not up to date, nor is it openly licensed.


82 Cameroon
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2016 0%
82 Cameroon

At the time of this survey, the national assembly website is not available. It is the location of most of the laws voted in Cameroon. The website of the presidency of the republic used to publish laws, as the president of the republic is allowed by the constitution to issue laws. But it is difficult to find this information on both websites.


1 Canada
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2016 100%
1 Canada

The information is provided as HTML, therefore a machine cannot extract the semantics of the information without significant effort. Other jurisdictions publish this information as XML and clearly identify semantic elements like the title, dates, headers, sections, clauses, etc.


14 Chile
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2016 78%
14 Chile

A bit unsure as to whether the Library of Congress should be considered as a government source because since it offers impartial service to congress, I am not sure whether is acts on behalf of government. But I decided to accept the data because 1)the speakers of the lower and upper house are among the chief decision makers 2) one of the Library's main function is to provide information to Congress (so it is closely associated with Congress) 3) Alyssa Beaton of Open North also pointed out that Library of Congress uses the same domain as other government website (.cl).


41 Colombia
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2016 50%
41 Colombia

As a reviewer I have indicated a more appropriate source for the data. I changed B5 and B7 to No. The only other change I made was to indicate that data is only available in html., and no other formats.


41 Colombia
Awaiting review
  anonymous
  33 days ago
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2016 100%
41 Colombia
41 Costa Rica
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2016 50%
41 Costa Rica

Cleaning of headers, foots, spacing, and some characters conversions would be required to use it as clean text.

Submission originally made by Ignacio Alfaro Marín


41 Croatia
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2016 50%
9 Czech Republic
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  •  
2016 83%
9 Czech Republic

Original submission by Michaela Rybičková


41 Denmark
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2016 50%
41 Dominican Republic
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2016 50%
41 El Salvador
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2016 50%
41 El Salvador

[Comment by original submitter] You have to find the laws you want to start building your database from scratch! [Comment by reviewer] I changed the original submission to indicate that the "Amendment to the law" were available. I found that it was easy enough to search (the same database) for the amendment listed and to obtain its full text. The record of amendments is also up to date (amendments passed within the last three months are recorded and made available online). I also changed the submission to indicate that the information is not in open domain. The texts of all the laws are only found in PDF format. The html webpage only provides the name of the law, the general topic, the date it was enacted, date of last amendment and a very short summary of the law.


14 Finland
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2016 78%
14 Finland

Consolidated legislation data set is not openly licensed, as stated in the link provided. It is CC-BY-NC


14 France
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2016 78%
37 Germany
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2016 61%
37 Germany

While the information is provided "free of charge", no indicate of an open license according to a short search. Laws also available in PDF.


41 Ghana
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2016 50%
41 Ghana

Article 11 of the 1992 Ghana Constitution states that the laws of Ghana shall comprise:

The Constitution; Enactments made by or under the authority of the Parliament established by the Constitution [or legislation]; Any Orders, Rules and Regulations made by any person or authority under a power conferred by this Constitution [or subsidiary or subordinate legislation]; The existing law or the written and unwritten laws of Ghana that existed immediately before the coming into force of the 1992 Constitution; and The common law [or the English common law, English doctrines of equity, and the rules of customary law]. All these available (albeit separately online)


9 Great Britain
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2016 83%
9 Great Britain

Changes to legislation are flagged and noted but not always integrated into the body of the legislation, apparently due to a longstanding backlog.

The data is re-usable under the Open Government Licence as noted in the standard footer on pages of the Legislation.gov.uk site.

The data is mainly plain text, i.e. not highly structured.


41 Greece
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2016 50%
41 Guatemala
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2016 50%
41 Guatemala

The original submission was rejected because it stated that data was not available. As a reviewer I was able to find the data (it was just provided by a different government department). Accordingly, I filled out the rest of the survey with my findings (check comments for more information).


28 Guyana
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2016 67%
28 Guyana

Laws of Guyana are available in PDF format at the following link: http://mola.gov.gy/information/laws-of-guyana. All data characteristics are available in the linked PDF documents. The original submitter, Alesha Aris, states that the data was easily found after carrying out a web search for "laws of Guyana." While the site is licensed to "Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Legal Affairs. Government of Guyana. All rights reserved." it is unclear if the information is updated within the required 3 months. However, the copyright maintains the current year, indicating that the page is current.


17 Hong Kong
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2016 72%
41 India
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2016 50%
41 Indonesia
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2016 50%
41 Indonesia

Most of the law documents are still in PDF format. Some of the are available in HTML


71 Iran
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2016 44%
17 Isle of Man
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2016 72%
17 Isle of Man

I have found this site to be one of the most accessible that I have reviewed to date. Flaws aside in locating data, as noted by the submitter, I would certainly believe that this model is a firm and dedicated step in the right direction of open data for governments.


41 Israel
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2016 50%
41 Israel

[Comment by original submitter]The legislative site will hopefully add an API in 2017. [Comment by reviewer] One change that was needed was in B7 where I indicated that the content is not in the public domain. I made this decision purely on what was available on the website. The original submitter indicated that there is a law that laws should be in the public domain- but I do not see proof of this on the website. I also changed B8 to indicate that data is not available in HTML. The original submitter had selected HTML format even though they stated on the comment that the text of the laws is only available in PFD only (which is true).


9 Italy
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2016 83%
9 Italy

This is an amendment for the original submission by Maurizio Napolitano


28 Jamaica
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2016 67%
28 Jamaica

The dissemination of the data or legislation files would benefit from adjusting the UI/UX and centralizing the data


1 Japan
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2016 100%
1 Japan

Now you can download XML file of laws with bulk at once.


41 Kenya
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2016 50%
37 Kosovo
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2016 61%
37 Kosovo

The review was based on the Gazette website. The original submitter used the Assembly website and made no mention of the Gazette (I added this source as a reviewer). I am much more confident that all the characteristics are found when taking the Gazette as a point of reference. The Assembly data is relatively incomplete as it does not note amendments on original laws (even though amendments are still published separately). The other change I made was in B8, where I noted that data is available in TXT format (in the Gazette).


28 Latvia
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2016 67%
80 Lesotho
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2016 17%
40 Macedonia
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2016 56%
82 Malawi
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2016 0%
82 Malaysia
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2016 0%
41 Mexico
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2016 50%
41 Mexico

In my original review I had made only one change to the original submission, to indicate that amendments to laws were present. I updated the review after feedback from Enrique_Zapata. In this updated review I have added a third source. In light of this new source it also appears that HTML is an available format- but I did not make changes to the submission because HTML no longer appears to be an option listed in B8 (but I have indicated it on the comments).


17 Montenegro
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2016 72%
82 Mozambique
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2016 0%
82 Myanmar
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2016 0%
82 Myanmar

There are no evidence to confirm that the data exist.


73 Namibia
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2016 33%
71 Nepal
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2016 44%
71 Nepal

The national laws of Nepal are easily found and are searchable for the public. However, as the submitter notes, the data is only downloadable one act at a time and is not necessarily updated at regular intervals.


1 Netherlands
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2016 100%
1 Netherlands

I changed B2 to indicate that data was available without the need to register. The original submitter had indicated that it is only available after registering. As the comment indicates the original submitter's decision was made on bulk downloads. Since bulk downloads are only a consideration for B5 I changed the submission, since texts of individual laws could be accessed without registration. I changed B3 to indicate that the dates of last amendments to laws and amendments were available. I changed B4 to YES because everything is free of charge. The original submitter's comment applies only to bulk downloads. In B8 I added that data is available for download in HTML and TXT format as well (in addition to XML). Before downloading a law, a dialogue box appears asking in which format you prefer to download.


17 New Zealand
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2016 72%
1 Northern Ireland
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2016 100%
1 Northern Ireland

Easy to access and navigated HTML data. RDF and XML will take a relative amount of programming experience.


41 Norway
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2016 50%
41 Norway

Original submitter works with open data in the government agency, Difi, which is in charge of the national open data portal - http://data.norge.no/

Note that Lovdata (publisher of National Laws) is a self-owning foundation, but started by the Ministry of Justice, and is the de facto publisher of legislation online. Also publishes changes/new legislation (Norsk lovtidend) as a paid task from the ministry.

National Law data is available for free as web pages only. API access is available for paid subscribers. Thus, it is possible to access the database at once, but not on a free of charge basis.


82 Oman
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2016 0%
41 Pakistan
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2016 50%
41 Panama
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2016 50%
41 Panama

Both websites listed in B2 lead to very similar data. All questions can be answered the same when considering both websites (although my review was based on the Info Juridicia website). I changed B5 to a NO because I could not see any possibility of downloading data in bulk. The website provides only the full text of the original version of a law. If one wants to download updates, one must download each amendment separately.


17 Paraguay
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2016 72%
17 Paraguay

This submission fulfills the data characteristics. I modified the original submission, made by Lupinupa L, to reflect that the content and amendments to the laws are only available in PDF. CSV, JSON and XML downloads are available, however, as the submitter states "you can download a "dataset" containing links to the laws but it is really is a dataset of metadata." Laws are available for viewing and download from both sources. Amendments to laws are not necessarily linked to the original laws.


41 Peru
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2016 50%
82 Philippines
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2016 0%
82 Philippines

The Philippine Gazette provides some data regarding legal codes, government acts, and the like -- it does not provide any amendments regarding these laws. The data is not easily accessible, it is not downloadable but is considered to be free. The website of the Philippine Gazette Journal is not organized to properly sort through the laws of the country.

Link to Philippine Gazette legal code example: http://www.gov.ph/the-philippine-legal-codes/

There an alternative website that lists the laws, the non-profit Philippines Laws and Jurisprudence Databank. It is not affiliated with the government. The database contains the laws in HTML format with no official amendments.

Link: http://lawphil.net/

Finally, there is a private company that claims to sell comprehensive National Law data (data provided on a CD). It is a paid service that does not qualify as open data.

Link: http://www.cdasia.com/laws-philippine-edition/


17 Poland
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2016 72%
37 Portugal
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2016 61%
37 Portugal

The government has announced an upgrade to the current site that will address some of the problems with the current one. It should be on-line early next year.


82 Puerto Rico
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2016 0%
82 Puerto Rico

The original submission was rejected because two required characteristics were missing from the data set. The original submitter made the following comment: [original submitter comment]The laws presented at this government web-site are in their original versions, as approved by the Legislature and signed into Law. Amendments to the laws are only available from costly, third party legal services.


41 Romania
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  •  
2016 50%
41 Romania

I removed the Senate website as a source. The review was based on the "Legislative Repertoire" link from the Chamber of Deputies website. The only other change I made was to indicate that HTML was an available format. The data is actually only available in HTML.


41 Russia
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2016 50%
82 Saint Kitts and Nevis
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2016 0%
82 Saint Kitts and Nevis

The Public Safety and Law section of the government website appears to be under construction. "This service has been scheduled for Process Engineering and will become available soon." https://www.gov.kn/


73 Saint Lucia
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2016 33%
82 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
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  •  
2016 0%
17 Serbia
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 72%
28 Singapore
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
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  •  
2016 67%
41 Slovakia
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  •  
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  •  
  •  
2016 50%
41 Slovenia
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  •  
2016 50%
41 Slovenia

Content of Laws is also offered in PDF and DOC format.

The Law Database website is "For personal, non-commercial use only", see Article 14 of the Terms of Use http://www.uradni-list.si/0/legal


17 South Africa
  •  
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  •  
2016 72%
1 Sweden
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  •  
2016 100%
1 Sweden

A very easy to navigate site that makes it easy to find information quickly and easily.


41 Switzerland
  •  
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  •  
2016 50%
41 Switzerland

No changes were made to the original submission. By going to the indicated URL I was easily able to verify the accuracy of all answers.


17 Taiwan
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  •  
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  •  
2016 72%
41 Tanzania
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  •  
  •  
2016 50%
9 Thailand
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  •  
2016 83%
9 Thailand

• Legislation by the Ministry of the Interior at EGA has worked with all government agencies to place their government data on the www.data.go.th in an open format and data being free of charge.

• Section 1021 of the Civil and Commercial Code of Thailand requires the information to be revealed. People can search for this information on the Royal Thai Government Gazette website, www.mratchakitcha.soc.go.th At the moment, Thailand’s constitutions and every other law are regularly published on the Royal Thai Government Gazette, www.mratchakitcha.soc.go.th. The website is administered by the Secretariat of the Cabinet. People can search for Thailand’s constitutions, Acts, Emergency Decrees, Royal Decrees, Ministerial Regulations, Ministerial Announcements, and Regulations of the Office of the Prime Minister etc. on this website.

• Content of National Laws (http://www.krisdika.go.th) are also available in these additional formats: PDF, TIF. Some metadata available via JSON on (http://www.data.go.th


28 The Bahamas
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  •  
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  •  
  •  
2016 67%
73 Trinidad and Tobago
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  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 33%
41 Tunisia
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  •  
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  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 50%
41 Tunisia

I am not able to asses to the website of the Prime Minister's office because I could not use search engine. Review is based on Official Printer's Website. The data on this website satisfies all the required characteristics. The only change I made was to change B7 to NO because the bottom of the Official Printer's Website states that "all rights are reserved" to Official Printing Office. The Prime Minister's website also contained no statement of open license. The link included by original submitter to verify open license was broken.


41 Turkey
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  •  
2016 50%
9 Ukraine
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  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 83%
17 United States
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  •  
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  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 72%
17 Uruguay
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 72%
82 Venezuela
  •  
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  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 0%
82 Venezuela

The original submission was rejected because 1) laws are only available for very specific time frames 2) for the laws that are available the date of last amendment and content of amendments is not available. The original submission had indicated the following for the data:

  • Characteristics: content, date of last amendment, amendments (the last two are actually missing
  • Free of charge: Yes -Up to date: Yes
  • Download in bulk: Yes (this should be a No)
  • Public domain: Yes (actually this should be a No)
  • Format: PDF only

41 Zambia
  •  
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  •  
  •  
2016 50%
41 Zambia

I rejected the original submission and started a new submission. On the site provided, I was not able to obtain access. The initial submitter had answered the questions accordingly:

B1: Yes B1.1: Zambia Legal Information Institute B2: yes B2.2: http://www.zambialii.org - Zambia Legal Information Institute B2.3: 4 B2.4: I google searched National Laws Zambia and this website was on the first page of search results. B3: Content/ Date of last amendment/ Amendments to the law B4: Yes B5: Yes B6: Yes B7: No - No copyright information is available on the website. B8: None - RTF B9: 3


28 Zimbabwe
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  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
2016 67%
28 Zimbabwe

Very easy to identify all the required characteristics in the data set. As a reviewer, the only change I made was to indicate that each law is also available in HTML format, not just PDF.